Democratic Politics (NTSE/Olympiad)
1. Power Sharing
Forms of Power Sharing
Forms of Power Sharing
Many people felt that if the power to decide is dispersed, it would not be possible to take quick decision and to enforce them.
One basic principle of democracy is that people are the source of all political power, & people rule themselves. In a good democratic government, due respect is given to diverse groups that exist in a society. Every one has a voice in the shaping of public policies.
In modern democracies, power sharing arrangements can take many farms.
1. Power is shared among different organs of the govt.
Horizontal distribution of power.
(A) In this form of distribution power is shared among different organs of government such as the legislature, executive and judiciary.
(B) This type of distribution advocates separation of powers in which different organs of government at the same level exercise different powers.
(C) Separation of powers ensures a check over the unlimited powers of each organs. This results in a balance of power among various institutions.
(D) It is also called a system of “checks and balances”.
2. Vertical Distribution of Powers :
(A) Under this form of power sharing arrangement, power is shared among governments at different levels. e.g. a general government for the entire country and a government at the provincial level.
(B) A general government for the entire country is usually called Federal government. In our country it is called as central government.
(C) In some countries like India & Belgium, the constitution clearly lays down the powers of the government at different levels. This is called the “Federal division of powers”.
All such division of powers involving higher and lower level of government is called vertical division of powers.
3. Power sharing among different social groups :
(A) In another way power may also be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and liguistic groups.
(B) This type of arrangement is meant to give space in the government and administration to diverse social groups who otherwise would feel alienated from the government.
(C) This method is used to give minority communities a fair share in power.
(D) Community government in Belgium and Reserved constituencies in assemblies and Parliament in India are the examples of this type of arrangement.
4. Power sharing among political parties and pressure groups :
Sometimes power sharing arrangements can also be seen in the way political parties, pressure groups and movements control or influence power because in a democracy the citizens must have a choice among various contenders for powers.