Democratic Politics (NTSE/Olympiad)
1. Electoral Politics
System Of Elections In India
Demarcation of Electoral : In case of any election, Municipal State or Lok Sabha elections, the concerned area is divided into many constituencies. For Lok Sabha, the whole country is divided into 543 constituencies. The number of Lok Sabha seats/constituencies has been fixed for each state according to its population. As far as Delhi is concerned, it is divided into seven Lok Sabha constituencies.
Voter’s Lists : After the demarcation of constituencies, the next step is to see that the voters’ list is prepared. For this, the Electoral Roll is prepared. All residents above the age of 18 are included in this list. Only insane persons or those who have criminal record are omitted from this list.
Announcement of Election Dates : The election process begins as soon as the dates for the elections are announced. The election Commission announces the dates for each and every election.
Selection of Candidates : Then different political parties select their candidates keeping in mind their prospect of winning the elections. Sometimes, political parties also help certain independent candidates where they have not fielded their own candidates. Generally candidates fielded by political parties stand good chance of their success as compared to independent candidates.
Filing the Nomination Papers, their Scrutiny, Withdrawal of Nomination by the Candidates and Publication of Final List : Then different candidates fill their nomination papers in the electron office before the last date meant for the same. Then after scrutiny, their nomination papers are accepted or rejected. Then the candidates, whose nomination papers are accepted, are given a chance to withdraw their names. Then the final list is prepared and ballot papers are printed.
Allotment of Symbols : National parties have their permanent symbols but other parties and independent candidates are also allotted symbols so that even the ordinary voter can recognize the different parties and candidates very easily.
Issuing of Election Manifestos : Then the different parties print their election manifestos so that the voters may easily know their programmes and policies very closely.
Campaigning : Then begins the campaigning for different candidates which includes postering, meetings, speeches, processions and house to house canvassing. This thing goes on for many days and only stops 48 hours before the polling time.
Voting, Counting of Votes and Declaration of Results : Then on the specific day, the voting is held on the basis of the secret ballot. After the voting is over, the ballot boxes are sealed and taken to the counting centres. There the votes are counted and soon after the result is declared.
Filling of Election Petition : If any candidate is not satisfied with the election results, he can go to the court of law to redress his complaint.