Chemistry (NTSE/Olympiad)  

2. Elementary Idea of Bonding

Double covalent bond

Double covalent bond : A double covalent bond is formed when two pairs of electrons are shared between the two combining atoms. A sharing of two pairs of electrons is shown by marking two short lines between the symbols of the two atoms.
1. Formation of an oxygen molecule (O2) :
An atom of oxygen contains six electrons in its valence shell. It requires two more electrons to attain a stable eight-electron configuration (octet). This is achieved when each of the two oxygen atoms shares its two electrons with the other, resulting in the formation of a stable oxygen molecule.

Pictorially, the oxygen molecule may be represented as in figure.

2. Formation of an ethylene molecule (C2H4) : In the formation of an ethylene molecule (C2H4), each of the two C atoms combines with two H atoms to form two single covalent bonds. The remaining two electrons of each C atom form a double bond between the two C atoms.

Pictorially, a molecule of ethylene (C2H4) may be represented a in figure.

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