Describe the main features of the Permanent Settlement. How was the Mahalwari System different from the Permanent Settlement?
The main features of the permanent settlements are described below:
- The amount of revenue was fixed permanently, that is, it was not to be increased ever in future.
- It was felt that this would ensure a regular flow of revenue into the Company\’s coffers and at the same time encourage the zamindars to invest in improving the land.
- Since the revenue demand of the state would not be increased, the zamindar would benefit from increased production from the land.
- Under this system revenue had been fixed so high that the zamindars found it difficult to pay.
- Anyone who failed to pay the revenue lost his zamindari. Numerous zamindaris were sold off at auctions organised by the Company.
- Even when the income of zamindars increased with the expansion of cultivation, the company had no chance of gain because it could not increase a revenue demand that had been fixed permanently.
In short we say that :
Under the Permanent Settlement the revenue was fixed or decided as per the land holdings of the peasants; In Mahalwari system revenue was to be paid by village known as mahal. In Permanent Settlement, there was no provision of any revision of the revenue. But in Mahalwari System the revenue was to be revised periodically. In Permanent Settlement the zamindars collected the revenue. But in Mahalwari systern the village headman had to collect the revenue.
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